Viterbi algorithm, demystified
When dealing with sequences, Viterbi algorithm and Viterbi decoding pops up regularly. This algorithm is usually described in the context of Hidden Markov Models. However, the application of this algorithm is not limited to HMMs. Besides, HMMs lately fell out of fashion as better Machine Learning techniques have been developed.
Bear with me here, please. This is the most tedious and boring part - explaining the notations.
We have a discrete sequence that starts at index and ends at index . Here is the length of the sequence. At each index there are possible states. The sequence (sometimes called path) is when we decide which state at each index was chosen. State valiable can take any value in the range at each index .
Thus, we describe sequence as , . Number of possible sequences (paths) grows exponentially with the length of the sequence .
One example: we want to describe (or predict) weather for a week. Here the length of our sequence is 7 (number of days), and
each day we have either
sunny state. We have total of three states. Let us encode
Here is one possible sequence:
sunny(2) sunny(2) cloudy(1) rainy(0) rainy(0) cloudy(1) sunny(2)
Or, in short, our
2 2 1 0 0 1 2
There are total possible weather sequences in this model (, ).
Now, if we want to predict the weather for a week, we need to come up with an algorithm that finds the most likely sequence . In ML this task is cast into optimization of some objective function . This function depends on the sequence, and we want to find that minimizes the . When I write I mean that is a real number that depends on complete path, i.e. depends on the state choice at every index . Same can be written as .
Practically, there are specific popular forms of dependency on . Choice of is super important, because it defines the model. Good choice will predict weather reliably. Bad choice will fail to do so.
Somewhat trivial, but still a reasonable model.
Here we introduced , which we will call logit array (or matrix). For each index we have numbers that tell us how likely the corresponding state is. For example, for weather prediction we may have the following logits:
index rainy=0 cloudy=1 sunny=2 ----------------------------------------- t=1 -0.1 -3.5 2.3 t=2 -0.8 -2.5 1.3 t=3 -1.2 -1.0 4.3 t=4 -0.2 -3.0 0.1 t=5 0.15 0.2 -2.7 t=6 0.19 1.5 -2.8 t=7 0.7 3.5 -5.3
Where do these logits come from? Typically from the top Neural Network layer. But for the discussion of Viterbi this is not important. What is important is that our model is fully described by a matrix of logits. Once we have these logits computed, we can find optimal sequence by minimizing the .
Even though we have 2187 possible paths to consider, finding best sequence can be done by just picking the smallest logit at each index. Thus, we can efficiently compute the best sequence and predict this:
cloudy cloudy rainy cloudy sunny sunny sunny
In the previous model, solution was computed locally, for each index . That was possible because optimization objective was a sum of local objectives.
For the weather prediction problem one can notice that in practice weather does not switch from
sunny or from
rainy. It (almost) always goes via
cloudy. To capture this observation, we can introduce a better loss:
Here first term is the same as before - the sum of local losses. The second term allows us to model dependencies between today and tomorrow. We introduced a matrix that controls the transitions. A physisist will say that we have “a potential with pairwise interactions”. In the context of HMMs term is called transition probabilities.
For a given , is a matrix that tells us how probable is the transition from state to state . In our weather prediction example, such a matrix may look like:
0.0 2.3 1000.0 5.3 1.5 4.2 1000.0 3.3 0.1
If we choose a path that switches from
cloudy(1) we will get additional loss of , or 5.3.
Note that for simplicity in this example is the same for all indices .
Now, if we choose a path that switches from
sunny(2) we will be penalized by extra loss of 1000.
Brute-force way of finding optimal sequence in a pairwise loss model is prohibitively expensive. Just think about a problem with and sequence length . The number of all possible sequences in this problem is , which is how many atoms we have in the observable universe. Good luck computing this!
Yet we can efficiently find the best sequence exploiting the pairwise structure of the model.
Dynamic programming to the resque
Viterbi algorithm is an instance of a dynamic programming class of algorithms.
First that we do in DP is we pretend we know the solution. To elaborate, lets first introduce a constrained optimization problem: we are asked to optimize objective function with the additional condition that sequence ends at a specific state . I will write this optimization objective as:
where can take any value in the range .
If we know solution for the constrained problem, we can find the full solution by just cycling thru all values of and finding the one that yields the minimal value of . Thus, knowing we can easily provide the answer for the original problem.
Now, back to the Dynamic Programming. We pretend that we know the answer already for a bit shorter problem. Specifically, we pretend that we can easily compute the best constrained objective . Assuming this, we notice that to find the solution to the original problem we just need to consider the last step of our sequence.
Lets express out pairwise objective function thru the objective of a one step smaller problem:
Now, if we know solution to a constrained problem of size , we can find a solution to the constrained problem of size , , because:
To finsh the hard part, lets note that solution for a problem with size 1 is super easy (as there is no pairwise term in the optimization objective). Viterbi will start with sequence of size 1 and grow the solution till it reaches final length of . The complexity is , and space needed is .
Again, returning to our imaginary problem that has 10 states and sequence of length 80, computational complexity is , while space needed is - very manageable!
Viterbi and transition constraints
In the classical sequence labeling (e.g. POS tagging) only logits are used and local loss is used for label decoding.
However, we can still use Viterbi if we add an ad-hoc transition matrix that expresses some additional knowledge.
For example, if we want to enforce a rule that a sunny day is never followed by a rainy day, we just postulate that transition matrix is the same for all and has the following structure:
0 0 0 0 0 0 1000 0 0
Then, we can use the same logits to decode the sequence of weather predictions. It is guaranteed to obey this constraint!
If additionally we want to forbid transitions from rainy to sunny, we would use the following transition matrix:
0 0 -1000 0 0 0 -1000 0 0
Thus, we are taking the original solution to a sequence labeling problem, and add external transition constraint. Then we find the best sequence that minimizes loss under the given constraint.
To recap, we can use Viterbi to find solutions to sequence labeling problems under additional transition constrains.
One important transition constraint arises when we use popular IOB label encoding.
Indeed, in IOB sequence there are some transitions that are not expected, given the meaning of IOB labeling. For example,
well-formed IOB sequence uses
B label to mark the start of an interval:
in O South B-location Korea I-location and O China B-location
But this one does not make sense:
in O South I-location Korea I-location and O China B-location
Formally, the rules are: label
I can only be preceded by
B. In other words, transition from
I is not allowed.
This can readily be expressed in terms of a transition matrix, and Viterbi can be used to ensure that we always return a sensible IOB label sequence.
XML structure constraint
When doing prediction on a text of a structural document (think XML), there are additional constraints if we want to express our predictions as additional XML tags. The additional XML tags we are injecting should not contradict the hierarchical structure of XML document.
Again, these constrains can be expressed in terms of transition matrix. This time for every position in our sequence we will have a different constraint - we can no longer use that does not depend on index . So building the matrix becomes more complicated. But once it is built, we will employ standard Viterbi decoder and get back label sequence that is guaranteed to play well with the structure of the input XML document.
Apart from asking Viterbi algorithm to find the best sequence, one can ask: give me the next best sequence. A greedy client can even demand this: give me best sequences, sorted by their “bestness”.
Luckily, a simple modification to Viterbi algorithm allows one to efficiently compute next best and next next best, and so on.
This can be used to estimate confidence of the predicted sequence and to locate suspicious places where prediction is not so sure.
The informal reasoning is this: lets get 10 best decodings and compare the very best decoding to the rest 9 decodings.
If there is a significant drop in the value of loss function when we go from the very best sequence to the next best, then system is quite confident in the prediction. Conversely, if losses of the very best and next best decoding are similar, then system thinks that both sequences are almost equally likely. Look where they differ and that would be a location where machine is not sure with the prediction.
When doing sequence labeling, Viterbi algorithm is very useful and broadly applicable - get to know it!